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RAYMOND 

Composite Piles 

Concrete and Wood 









A FORM 

FOR EVERY 

PILE 

A PILE 

FOR EVERY 
PURPOSE 



RAYMOND COMPOSITE PILES 










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Raymond Composite Piles 



(PATENTED) 



Concrete and Wood 




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T IS a well known fact that a wood pile shows its first evidence of deteriora- 
tion at the top. This naturally suggests the permanency of a wood pile 
unit having a concrete top extending down to an 
elevation well below permanent water level. Which is ac- 
complished by the Raymond Composite Pile. 

Its development is an outgrowth of the wide ex- 
perience which the Raymond Concrete Pile Company 

has acquired in the placing of millions of feet of concrete 
piling under an infinite variety of soil and water con- 
ditions. 

Where long piles are required and permanent water 
level is within a reasonable distance below the surface, 
it is usually cheaper to substitute wood for concrete 
in that portion of the pile which is permanently sub- 
merged. The idea is not a new one but the development 
of a joint of sufficient strength and rigidity, together with 
a method that will insure uniform and satisfactory 
results, has required considerable thought and ingenuity 
and a long series of experiments. 

After several years of experimentation and develop- 
ment we have produced a joint between the wood 
and concrete sections which is practically as strong 
as any part of the completed pile. The Raymond 
Composite Pile can be considered a recognized struc- 
tural unit. 



Wood piles, in order to be permanent, must be cut 
off below water level. If they are permanently sub- 
merged, they will last for centuries, providing they are 
not attacked by animal life or chemical action. The 
Raymond Composite Pile consists of a wood pile, cut off 

below permanent low water, upon which is superimposed 
a Raymond Concrete Pile. Following this method 
more than three million feet of Raymond Composite 
Piles have been driven and they have been found to 
meet the most exacting requirements. 






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Page Three 




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I) itty iln woodt !"(• tni /< Pi 




To secure a satisfactory Composite Pile the essential 

■ 

requirements are: — 

1. To provide a means of driving a wood pile and 
a superimposed concrete section so that a perfect 
alignment may be maintained between the two 

sections. 



^2. To accomplish this driving in a manner that will 
preserve the head of the wood pile from injury 



during the driving. 



(Any distortion or destruc- 
tion of the head would, of necessity, weaken the 
joint of which it forms a part or allow settlement 
between the concrete and wood sections.) 

3. To provide a tight joint which will exclude water, 
mud, running sand or other foreign substances. 

4. To provide reinforcement and anchorage to lock 
the concrete section to the wood section so that 
the two units cannot separate or be displaced by 

ground pressure upheaval. 

5. To provide a joint that unites the two materials 
so that the transverse strength at any section 
will approximate that of the wood pile. 

(>. To cany on operations in a manner that will 
permit of the inspection and checking of each 

step. 

All tlic.se requirements are met by the Raymond 

( - niposn i. Pile. 



The steps involved in placing these piles consist of: 



1. Driving the wood pile to ground level. 

2. FiUing on to the top of the WOod pile the collapsible 
mandrel or follower encased in a .spirally reinforced 
Steel -shell. 



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, f. S. Driving the combined unit to its final penetration. 









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Pag* Four 



4. Withdrawing the mandrel, leaving 
the steel shell in the ground to 
protect and serve as a mold for 
the concrete at the joint. 

5. Filling this shell with concrete 

Before being driven, the wood pile 
is provided with a tenon approximate- 
ly 9 ]/2 inches in diameter and 18 
inches long. By means of a special 
machine, this tenon is accurately shaped 
and cut square on the end so that a 
perfect contact is provided between 
the follower and the pile, thereby 
avoiding any brooming or damage to 
the tenon during the period of driving. 
This tenon likewise fits closely the 
cylindrical opening at the end of the 
Raymond core and thereby insures a 
true alignment between the wood and 
the concrete sections. 

A hollow boot closely encases the 
bottom of the steel shell on the core, and, 
at the same time, fits tightly over the 
town of the wood pile. These joints are 
so perfect in their fit that all water, 
mud or other foreign matter is ex- 
cluded from the interior of the shell. 
A perfect form, susceptible of ins pec- 
tion, is thus provided to receive the 
concrete which fills the space of about 
two inches between the wood tenon 
and the outer shell of the concrete 
pile. The spiral reinforcing of the 
shell adds to the strength of this cylin- 
der of concrete which surrounds the 
top part of the wood pile. 

Before the wood pile is placed in 
the leads, a hollow steel socket is on- 
bedded in the center of the tenon and 
secured by a seven-eighths inch steel 
pin extending transversely through the 
tenon and socket. 




Anchor for reinforcing Rod in Comvoi Piles 




By m of a special machine, t ed 

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Page Eight 




This socket has a heavy internal thread which 
receives the threaded end of a deformed bar. The 
bar is screwed into the socket after the wood pile has 
been followed down to its final position and the core 
or follower has been collapsed 
and removed. It thus provides 
a reinforcement in the concrete 
and also acts as a rigid lock 
between the wood and the con- 
crete. This lock is strong 



enough to withstand a direct 
pull of over ten tons which is 
considerably in excess of ordi- 
nary requirements. 

The concrete section of the 
pile is made by using a Raymond 
Composite core which is encased 
in a spirally reinforced steel shell. 
This core acts as a follower in 

carrying the wood pile down to the desired elevation. 

The core is then collapsed and withdrawn, leaving 



By using a Raymond Composite 
core which is encased in a 
spirally reinforced steel shell 






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A hollo u el socket is embedded in th# 
center of the tenon and secured by a 8 even - 
jhths inch steel pin extruding transversely 
through the tenon and socket 






I per] form susceptible of inspection is thus provid* 



the shell in the ground to be 
filled with the concrete. 

When this has been done a 
perfect concrete pile is se- 
curely locked to the top of 
the wood pile. 



Page Nine 




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103.000 POUND TEST LOAD ON 

ONE RAYMOND COMPOSITE PI 

WOOD PILE 43'-4"L0NG. CONCRETE PILE I2'4"L0NC 

SETTLEMENT fi" 

CHICAGO. ILL. MAY 5, 1922 

TEST MADE FOR CHICAGO BUILDING DEPARTMENT 
CHICAGO- RAYMOND CONCRETE PILE CO, - NEW-YORK 



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^4 /(.s/ /n'/f/ of I 000 cavsed a total settlement of \5B oj an inci 

Test for the Chicago Building 



Department 



In April, 1922, the Building Department of the City of Chicago conducted a 
test on Raymond Composite Piles. In this instance, the length of the wood pile 
was 43 feet and the concrete section 12 feet, making a total of 55 feet. The wood 
pile was driven to ground level with 90 blows of a No. 1 Vulcan type steam 
hammer having a moving part weighing 5,000 lbs. and falling a distance of 3 feet 
at the rate of 60 blows to the minute. The Raymond Composite Core was then 
placed on top of the wood pile as a follower and 565 blows of the No. 1 hammer were 
required to drive the pile the additional 12 feet to hardpan. A test load of 103,000 
lbs. caused a total settlement of ft of an inch, which is well within the allowable 
settlement for a safe load of 25 tons under the Chicago Building Department 
requirements of the City Code. 

Page Eleven 




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ted t — than the n He 



After the load had been removed, the pile was excavated to a point about 18 
inches below the joint, and the wood pile sawed off at this level. The concrete 
pile was then also cut off about 4 feet higher up, and the joint section thus obtained 
was raised to the surface of the ground for further examination. A portion of the 
concrete was cat away to expose the wood tenon, the top of which, notwithstanding 
the 055 blows of the No. 1 hammer, was in perfect condition and showed no evi- 
dence of splintering or "brooming". 

As will be seen from the photograph, the pile tested was one of a group of three 
placed at points of a triangle on 3-foot centers. It was the first one driven and 
concreted. The shell of the second pile of the group was left open (i.e., not filled 
with concrete) while the third pile was driven, and these two empty shells were 
allowed to remain open for an hour or more, after which a most thorough examina- 
tion failed to disclose any seepage of mud, water or other foreign element into 
the interior. The wood pile used in this test was an average cypress pile and 
was not specially selected for straightness or quality. Standard Raymond Equip- 
ment was used throughout. 



Page Fourteen 



Fisher Body Corporation 

Detroit Michigan. 

Alb Kohn. Architect 

Composite Pile 

Wood SSftt 
Cono-eta I 5 feet 

Total Length 70 Feet 

Load I2Q000 pounds. 

Settlement '^4 tneft 



New York -Detroit- Chicago. 



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Working Loads 



In many soil conditions, Raymond Composite Piles can be loaded in excess 
of the maximum load allowed on wood piles for the reason thai the larg< surface 
area and taper of the concrete section relieve the underlying wood member from 
much of its load. It must, however, be borne in mind that the carrying capacity 

of a pile is necessarily dependent on the nature of the soil winch it penetrates. 

In calculating the resistance which this penetration develops, there has been 
devised what is known as the "Engineering News Formula ". This is recognized 
as a fairly accurate gauge of the carrying capacity of a pile. For steam hammer 
driving, it is as follows : — 



2 W H 



L 



S + 0.1 



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L = Load in pounds 

\\ T = Weight of falling parts in pounds 

H = Drop in feet of falling parts 

S = Final penetration per blow in inches 



A No. 1 steam hammer has a weight of five thousand pounds falling '"> inches. 
A No. 2 steam hammer has a weight of three thousand pounds falling 30 inches. 

Pag* Fift* 




is i tfra th boat, slet ring and tkret sections of shell used in the m< ng of a co pile 

Note n the nd bar-end for bonding 




Pile Spacin 

Raymond Composite Piles can ordinarily he driven 2 feet 6 inches center to 

center, although under some conditions it is desirable to space the piles farther 
apart. 

The shell into which the concrete section of the pile is cast permits of rather 
close spacing, since it protects the green and setting concrete from distortion or 
earth movement caused by the driving of adjacent piles. 



We recommend, however, that you confer with our nearest office as to pile 
layout, as it often proves economical to work out the spacing of the piles to meet 
particular and specific conditions. 



Pope Sixteen 




A (est load of 120,' produced a sett it oj but .015 feet 



Load and Joint Tests 



Extensive tests of and experiments with Raymond Composite Piles have 
been carried on since 1916. The Company has, in actual practice, made numerous 
satisfactory load tests, some up to 60 tons on single piles. The piles placed have 
varied in overall lengths from 35 feet to as much as 117 feet, with concrete sections 
varying from 8 to 2>2 feet long, depending on the distance from cut-off to permanent 
water level. Tests and experiments covering a period of more than six years 
were carried on, during which time the Company placed approximately 42,000 
Raymond Composite Piles before wide publicity was given to this system of pile 
foundation work. 

The accompanying photograph shows a 60-ton test made at Warners, N. J., 
in 1916. The ground was very soft "marsh" mud to a depth of 33 feet, below 
which hardpan was found. The wood pile used was 20 feet long and the con- 
crete section 15 feet long, making a total length of 35 feet. This brought the 
joint of the two sections much nearer to the center of the pile than is usual in com- 
posite pile construction. Furthermore, the soil at the elevation of the joint was 

Page Seventeen. 




hatH 



of a fluid character giving minimum 



lateral support. Notwithstanding t lie* se- 



verity of the conditions, a test load of 120,000 pounds produced a settlement of but 

i 3 e of cut inch. 

Raymond Composite Pile joints have been tested as simple beams, as can- 
vers and as unsupported columns. The tests have been many and varied; 
they hav< been carried out under conditions infinitely more severe than any which 
are likely to be encountered in actual practice; and the results have been such a 
to satisfy the most exacting critic. 













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400.000 POUND TEST LOAD 
ON FOUR RAYMOND COMPOSITE PILES 

WOOD PILES 60 FT. LONG -CONCRETE PILE 15 FT. LONG 

SETTLEMENT W 

TEST MADE FOR U.G.I. CONTRACTING CO. 

APRIL 3 »23 -SYRACUSE N.^V. APRIL 3 1923 

NEW YORK-RAYMOND CONCRETE PILE CO.- CHICAGO 



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/n,. m four composit* s, wood sectian 60. feet, concreh ■■ Sow /■" i '. Tola rttlement .34 in 

U. G. I ( ontract ' ( o . Syra V } . 




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' 4 n r ionecom, ■ pile. Total length o\ ■ Total settlement .12$ . Fort Sum Hoi 

( 'karleston, S i 



Page Ninteeen 



Cost 



Raymond Composite Piles, like Standard Raymond Piles, are constructed 
in place and the prices quoted are for completed piles ready for capping. Each 
problem requires special study for its proper solution and it is therefore impossible 
to quote even approximate prices for general use- 
In order to make a prelimi- 
nary estimate, the following in- 
formation is ess ntial: 

1. Total load of superstructure 
to be carried; load for each 
column and a plan of struc- 
ture. 

2. Nature of the soil: approx- 
imate depth to which wood 

pili s would penetrate below 
permanent water level; dis- 
tance from water level to 



cut-off. 



>. Location and ac ibilitv 

i.e., roads, railroad or water 
facilities of th site: a rough 
sketch of the same. 

4. Cos! of concrete materials 

and wood pil< delivered on 

the work. 

5. In general the mon infoi 
mation pn seated, even in 
preliminary n< got iations, 

the m a ite will be 
1 he estimate <>f < -t. 




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Our Engin rii . Department is available at all times for iir stifl ti 



ion 



work 



and for submitting f recommendations, des _ \s and estimates. 
A list of ur branch offia a will be found on the last pag< 



Pag* Tictnt 



Specifications 



It has frequently been the Company's experience that architects and engineers, 
in order to be assured of satisfactory results, wish to specify Raymond Composite 
Piles. Occasionally it is considered inadvisable to designate the type of pile by 
name, and, in such an event, the following specifications will cover Raymond 
Composite Piles: 

Composite Piles shall be of a type specifically approved by the architect or 
engineer and shall be placed in the following manner: 

A cast-in-place concrete pile not less than 14 inches in 
diameter at the point and cast in a steel shell, which shall 
remain in the ground, shall be superimposed upon a sound 
wood pile of suitable size and length. 

The head of the wood pile shall be so shaped and sized 
that it may be imbedded 18 inches longitudinally in the con- 
crete section and surrounded by at least 2 inches of concrete. 

The head of the wood pile shall be anchored to the con- 
crete section by a deformed bar extending throughout the 
concrete section and firmly connected to the wooden section 
' in such a manner as to withstand a pull of at least 10 tons. 

The joint between the steel shell and wood sections shall be 
thoroughly sealed so that after the withdrawal of the driving 
core the joint may be readily inspected before the concrete is 
poured. 

The metal form into which the concrete is poured shall be of 
sufficient strength to prevent distortion or bulging while the 
cavity is being filled with concrete or while the adjacent piles 
are being driven. 



A Form for Every Pile 
A Pile for Every Purpose 



Page Twenty-One 



The Standard Raymond Concrete Pile 

It is not the purpose of this catalogue to deal with the Standard Raymond 

Concrete Pile; the Company has a special catalogue devoted to that type of 

pile and to the Company's work in the design and construction of reinforced con- 
crete docks, bulkheads, sea-walls, retaining- walls, shipways. bridges, tunnels, 

heavy foundations, etc. 



The Standard Raymond Com rete Pile is widely known throughout the 
architectural and engineering professions. More than 80% of the concrete piling 

used in the United States is placed by the Raymond Company. 




The steps involved 

in placing a Standard 
]{\\ MOND Pile are:— 



1. Driving a collapsible 

mandrel or core en- 
cased in a spirally 
reinforced .v/< < I shell. 



"J. Withdrawing 



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mandrel after suf- 
ficient penef ra1 ion 

been secured, 
leaving the shell in 

the -round to pro- 
tect and sen as a 
•nil for the con- 

l n b . 



Filling this shell u ith 



concrett 



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The H n mond Pile 

i In- only ( !oncrete 

Pile having a permanent 

form <»r shell \\ hich 

remains in 1 li<- ground. 







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Raymond Concrete Pile Company 



Offices 

New York City Chicago 

140 Cedar Street 111 West Monroe Street 



Atlanta - - - ___ ____ Healy Building 

Baltimore Munsey Building 

Boston Park Square Building 

Cleveland Union Building 

Detroit -------------- Empire Building 

Kansas City Huntzinger Building 

Norfolk Royster Building 

Philadelphia 1423 Locust Street 

Pittsburgh Union Bank Building 

St. Louis Railway Exchange Building 

Los Angeles Washington Building 

San Francisco ______ 01,5 Monadnock Building 

Portland, Oregon 194 North 13th Street 

Houston 42.5 West Building 



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Canada 

Raymond Concrete Pile Co., Ltd.. 
New Birks Building, Montreal 



Great Britain 

J. & W. Stewart 
12, Berkeley St., London, W. I. 



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Printed in U, S. A. 





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